Baldomer Gili i Roig was a Catalan painter, draftsman and photographer. His father was a teacher and editor. His brother, Gustau (Gustavo, 1868–1945), became the founder of Editorial Gustavo Gili , a major publishing company. In 1882, the family moved to Irun, where he began his first art lessons with José Salís Camino , a marine artist and follower of Camille Corot. Six years later, the family returned to Barcelona and he enrolled at the Escola de la Llotja. It was there that he came under the influence of the Sorollistas and brightened his palette.
The following year, he held his first showing in his hometown and, with the help of Jaume Morera, received a stipend from the local government to study in Italy. At first, he lived in a Capuchin monastery near Rome, in Frascati, then at the Villa Strohl Fern in the Villa Borghese. While there, he sent paintings back to Lleida (to show that he was fulfilling the conditions of his stipend), and to an exposition in Paris. In 1901, he participated in the National Exhibition of Fine Arts.
After four years, he returned to Barcelona. In addition to his paintings, he provided illustrations for several notable publications, including L’Esquella de la Torratxa. Many of his drawings were signed « L’Alegret » (possibly a reference to Alegret, the Gascon troubadour). He also tried his hand at being a playwright. In 1909, the Teatre Apolo premiered his musical comedy La Canción de la Ninfa; written under the nom-de-plume « Emilio Roig », with music by Pedro Enrique de Ferrán.
He was fascinated with photography as well and almost always went about with a camera on hand, producing over a thousand glass plates, documenting the places and people in his life, which his descendants presented to the Museu d’Art Jaume Morera in 2009
Over the next decade, he continued to exhibit frequently and widely throughout Europe and South America, visiting Buenos Aires and Montevideo in 1925. He died of pneumonia at the end of 1926.
Je vous propose aujourd’hui de poursuivre la découverte de Josef Breitenbach. Cette fois-ci nous laisserons de côté ses influences surréalistes et nous admirons ses fabuleux portraits, et nus et quelques photographies de voyages .
En 1932, Breitenbach ouvre son premier studio de photographie. Ses clients étaient des membres éminents de la bohème de Munich, (y compris les acteurs et actrices de la scène dans le théâtre de Munich.) qui était alors un bastion des défenseurs des libertés et des personnes raffinées. Mais ce monde a disparu en 1933 avec la prise de pouvoir d’Hitler.Plus que ses racines juives, le passé politique du photographe fait de lui une cible à persécuter. En Août 1933, avec son passeport, Breitenbach arrive en France, rejoignant d’autres exilés Allemands qui cherchent refuge à Paris.
La «révolution» surréaliste allait alors devenir dominante dans la scène artistique parisienne. Peu après son arrivée, Breitenbach est entré en contact avec André Breton et son entourage. Préférant conserver son indépendance, il n’a jamais été un membre du groupe surréaliste, mais a participé à des expositions importantes de la photographie surréaliste aux côtés de Man Ray, Jacques-André Boiffard, Brassaï, Eli Lotar, Henri Cartier-Bresson, et Roger Parry.
Breitenbach n’a vécu à Paris que six ans, jusqu’à ce que la guerre éclate en 1939, et pourtant, pendant cette période , il a produit certains de ses travaux les plus inventifs. (Il a adopté plusieurs techniques favorisées par de nouveaux photographes tels que la surimpression, le montage, la solarisation, l’impression en négatif, et le photogramme. Plus important encore, il était l’un des rares artistes des années d’avant-guerre à produire des photographies en couleurs, ce qu’il a fait en utilisant des procédés tels que le blanchiment, la tonification et la pigmentation.)
La guerre interrompit ce deuxième chapitre de la vie du photographe. Interné par les Français comme un étranger suspect, puis rédigé dans un corps civil composé d’étrangers, Breitenbach finalement échappé à la France de Marseille en 1941 pour New York . Il parvient à retenir l’attention de Walker Evans, qui publie ses travaux dans Fortune .
À l’été 1944, à l’invitation de Josef Albers, Breitenbach enseigne la photographie au Black Mountain College. En 1946, il est devenu un citoyen des États-Unis et a rejoint la faculté de la Cooper Union .
For a biography in English go down Article
Les années 1950 et 1960 ont été des années d’intense activité pour Breitenbach. Il a fait reportage photographique en Asie pour les Nations Unies et d’autres entreprises variées, documentant le travail des secours.
Il exposera ses photographies largement dans les Etats-Unis à partir des années 1940 jusqu’au milieu des années 1960, notamment au Museum of Modern Art et le Metropolitan Museum of Art
Des portraits du photographe par des anonymes ici sur wordpress sur le blog A la loupe
Voir les résultats des actions le concernant sur Mutualart
Conseil de lecture :
Manifesto By Josef Breitenbach , Ed° Nazraeli Press , 2008
Josef Breitenbach: by Josef Breitenbach Photographs and text (in German) by Josef Breitenbach. Essays (in German) by Peter C. Jones, and Others , Published on the occasion of the 1996-1997 exhibition Josef Breitenbach: Photographien at the Staatliche Galerie Moritzburg Halle and the Fotomuseum im Münchner Stadtmuseum, Ed° Schirmer-Mosel, 1996
Josef Breitenbach » by Larisa Dryansky, Editions de l’Amateur, 2001English Bio
Josef Breitenbach was born on the 3rd of April 1896. He attended Ludwig-Maximillian University in Munich (philosophy and art history, 1914 to 1917) and became active in the Youth Section and later the Pacifist wing of the Social Democratic Party. In 1918, he took part in the Soviet-inspired Bavarian coup d’état, which was the first spark of the revolutionary fire that swept over Germany in the wake of the armistice. For a few months, Breitenbach also occupied an official position in the new government. Although the revolution was short-lived, the ties he forged with the radical circles of Munich’s intelligentsia later helped him establish his reputation as a photographer.
In 1932, Breitenbach opened his first photographic studio. His clients were prominent members of Munich’s bohemia, including actors and actresses performing in the Munich theater. Munich was a stronghold of libertarians and refined people, whose spirit Breitenbach captured in theatrical portraits of his friend, the journalist Theo Riegler. This world vanished in 1933 with Hitler’s takeover.
More than his Jewish roots, the photographer’s political past made him a target for persecution. In August, 1933, with his passport , Breitenbach made his way to France , joining other German exiles seeking refuge in Paris.
The Surrealist “revolution” had by then become dominant in the Parisian art scene. Soon after his arrival, Breitenbach came into contact with André Breton and his circle. Preferring to retain his independence, he never became a member of the Surrealist group, but did show work in important exhibitions of Surrealist photography alongside Man Ray, Jacques-André Boiffard, Brassaï, Eli Lotar, Henri Cartier-Bresson, et Roger Parry.
Breitenbach only lived in Paris for six years, until the war broke out in 1939. During this period, he produced some of his most inventive work. He adopted several techniques favored by new photographers such as superimpression, montage, solarization, printing in negative, and the photogram. More importantly, he was one of the rare artists of the pre-War years to produce color photographs, which he did by using processes of bleaching, toning and pigmentation. Examples are the images “Montparnasse”, or Forever and Ever.
During his years in Paris, he was also an active member of the German exile community, which alerted the democratic world to the threat of fascism. He participated in the 1938 exhibition by the Union des Artistes Allemandes Libres, “Five Years of Hitler Dictatorship”. A high point for Breitenbach was his collaboration with Bertolt Brecht, summarized by portraits of the playwright. The war interrupted this second chapter of the photographer’s life. Interned by the French as a suspicious alien, then drafted into a civilian corps composed of foreigners, Breitenbach eventually escaped to New York from Marseille in 1941.He came to the attention of Walker Evans, who published his work in Fortune. In the summer of 1944, at the invitation of Josef Albers, Breitenbach taught photography at Black Mountain College. In 1946 he became a United States citizen and joined the faculty at Cooper Union and later The New School. Breitenbach continued to create distinctive and innovative work, including a striking group of camera-less photographs. These works hover in the liminal space between Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. The 1950s and 1960s were years of intense activity for Breitenbach. He did photographic reportage in Asia for the United Nations and other varied businesses, documenting relief work. He exhibited his photographs extensively in the United States from the 1940s to the mid-1960s, including at the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
I proposed today to browse some facets Josef Breitenbach left us behind. This was mainly the result of the encounter with the Surrealists and accompanied throughout his adventure. Through his portraits, montages , collage, photogram , naked, and some memories , moreover
« Jacob Merkelbach was the founder of one of the most famous Amsterdam portrait photography studios of the twentieth century on the fifth floor of fashion house Hirsch at Leidseplein Studio J Merkelbach ( Atelier Merkelbach) In the luxurious studio above the fashion warehouse Hirsch on the Leidseplein, he photographed almost all famous Dutch people from the theater world, writers, artists, businessmen and the wealthy Amsterdam bourgeoisie. Taking pictures of Abel Herzberg, André Herzberger, Carel Asser Daniel comme Mata Hari , Fien de la Mar , Théo Mann-Bouwmeester , Willem Mengelberg et Abel Herzberg , se sont fait capturer sur l’album sensible.and many others. His photographs are unique and of exceptional quality. You can see here the galery of protraits .The personal signature in the design and execution of each portrait, the technical knowledge of the staff and the professional cooperation of the daughter and son-in-law made this workshop a well-running company that, after Merkelbach’s death, could be continued until 1969.
Jacob was born on April 29, 1877 and was the son of John Wilhelm Merkelbach and Maria Antonia van Schaik. His parents had a shop on the Nieuwendijk 57-59, which was sold mainly technical toys, and a fireworks factory in Amsterdam.
The fireworks factory was rebuilt in the 90s of the 19th century to a daylight film. This father did after he came into contact with Lumiére. Financially it was not profitable and father decided to go into all the photography. The case on the Nieuwendijk was an important place for the sale of photographic equipment. Above the case opens the son-father Machiel Laddé a workshop.
This workshop is Jacob works and continues to do so for about 10 years. There he learned the profession. In 1902 married with Josephine Harmsen and get on April 21 1904 they can daughter Maria Antonia (Mies). Later, Mies goes to work in the photo studio.
In 1913 own studio opens on Leidseplein 29, on the 5th floor of Hirsch. In 1924 Mies is working in the studio after she completed training at the Dagteken- Art and Craft School for Girls in Amsterdam. Her work in the studio is to retouch, enhance, and print photos.
In 1932 comes Lambert JM Rosenboom (15 Feb 1905, also known as Bobby) in the company work. Mies married him in 1939.
On February 6, 1942 dies Jacob Merkelbach. His daughter Mies puts the company on, her husband Bobby is arrested in 1941 and the remainder of the war in German captivity. Mies makes this period illegal passport photos in the studio, while the Germans regularly on the floor is due to the anti-aircraft guns on the roof of Hirsch & Cie.
Atelier Merkelbach gets in 1948 the honorable mission to Queen Wilhelmina portraits, one of the pictures the ceremonial of the Queen is.
In the 50’s declining interest in portrait photography. Photography is available for consumers by becoming less expensive devices. This also affects Atelier Merkelbach. In 1969, the company, on April 29 – the birthday of Jacob Merkelbach – lifted. There are 150,000 glass negatives of exceptional historical value. These will be donated to the City of Amsterdam. « by scherptediepte.nl